Medieval Welsh

A Self-Instruction Course created by Heather Rose Jones

Copyright © 2003, 2004 all rights reserved. This page most recently revised on: May 31, 2004

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Unit: 4k



As in the last unit, start by trying to interpret the original text, then check your work against the standardized text and review your translation before looking at the translation given in the answer key.

1. Read the text in the original and make your best guess at turning it into our "standardized" spelling. Use not only the principles that you have been taught, but also your own familiarity with the langauge. If a word looks like it could be one that you know by applying or not applying some of the variable changes (like "lenition" of internal consonants), then go with your instincts and see if it works.

2. Translate the text.

3. Any time the word that appears in the text is not identical to the citation form in your vocabulary, figure out why. (Answers to this part will not be given in the answer key from now on.)

Original Text (with framing passages)

Ac ual yd oedynt yn eisted yuelly, wynt a welynt teir llong ar dec, yn dyuot o deheu Iwerdon, ac yn kyrchu parth ac attunt, yn nessau yn ebrwyd attunt. "Mi a welaf longeu racco," heb y brenhin, "ac yn dyuot yn hy parth a'r tir. Ac erchwch y wyr y llys wiscaw amdanunt, a mynet y edrych pa uedwl yw yr eidunt." Y gwyr a wiscawd amdanunt ac a nessayssant attunt y wayret. Gwedy guelet y llongeu ... diheu oed ganthunt na welsynt eiryoet llongeu gyweirach eu hansawd noc wy.

Additional Vocabulary

(You may have already added some of these from the lessons.)

Word Category Plural/Stem/Etc. Gloss
ansawdd n.m (odd)-eu quality, nature
cyweir adj perfect, complete, orderly
deheu n.f south, right (hand)
diheu adj certain; (noun) certainty
dyvod v (irregular) to come
ebrwydd adj swift
eiryoed adv ever (usually neg. "never")
gwaered n.m descent, bottom; i waered = downward
gweled v gwel- to see
heb v * said (defective paradigm)
hy adj bold, daring
Iwerddon n.? Ireland
meddwl n.m meddylieu thought
myned v (irregular) to go
pa prn what
racco adv yonder, over there
yvelly adv thus, so

Check your attempted normalization of the text using the following link. Then go back to your interpretation and see if there's anything you want to change before checking it for correctness.

Normalized Text

Key to the Exercise

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