Key to the Exercise of Unit 5c

Exercise 1 - DYVOD

As in the lesson, # marks an expected form that is not actually found in the surviving literature. Numbered notes carry over through all the tables. In all tables for dyvod the first column uses the stem d(y)- and the second uses do-.

Present Present
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s d(y)+a+af deuaf do+a+af doaf2
2s d(y)+a+ei deuy do+a+ei doy
3s d(y)+a+0 daw1 do+a+0 do
1p d(y)+a+wn deuwn do+a+wn down
2p d(y)+a+wch deuwch do+a+wch dowch
3p d(y)+a+ant deuant2 do+a+ant doant2
impersonal d(y)+a+ir deuir do+a+ir doir

1 - This is simply irregular. (But what did you expect? It's the 3rd singular!)

2- The prefix only affects the vowel in the stem, not the "a" in the ending itself.

Imperfect Imperfect
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s d(y)+a+wn deuwn do+a+wn down
2s d(y)+a+ud deuut do+a+ud dout
3s d(y)+a+ei deuei do+a+ei doei
1p d(y)+a+em deuem# do+a+em doem
2p d(y)+a+ewch deuewch# do+a+ewch doewch#
3p d(y)+a+ynt deuynt do+a+ynt doynt#
impersonal d(y)+a+it deuit# do+a+it doit#


Preterite Preterite
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s d(y)+aeth+um deuthum3 do+aeth+um doethum4
2s d(y)+aeth+ost deuthost do+aeth+ost doethost
3s d(y)+aeth+0 deuth do+aeth+0 doeth
1p d(y)+aeth+am deutham do+aeth+am doetham
2p d(y)+aeth+awch deuthawch# do+aeth+awch doethawch
3p d(y)+aeth+ant deuthant do+aeth+ant doethant
impersonal d(y)+aeth+pwyd deuthpwyd do+aeth+pwyd doethpwyd

3 - Note that you get deuth- not deueth- in this entire set. If it helps, recall that the past stem of myned sometimes appears as ath-.

4 - This group, however, behaves as if the past stem is aeth, thus do+aeth- > do+eth.

Perfect Perfect
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s d(y)+ath+wyf deuthwyf#5 do+ath+wyf dothwyf6
2s d(y)+ath+wyt deuthwyt#5 do+ath+wyt dothwyt
3s d(y)+ath+yw deuthyw#5 do+ath+yw dothyw
1p d(y)+ath+ym deuthym#5 do+ath+ym dothym
2p d(y)+ath+ych deuthych#5 do+ath+ych dothywch#
3p d(y)+ath+ynt deuthynt#5 do+ath+ynt dothynt
impersonal ? (unattested) ? (unattested)

5 - No examples of this hypothetical set are found at all, so it should not be used.

6 - These forms are also found with dod- instead of doth-.

Pluperfect Pluperfect
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s d(y)+ath+oeddwn 5 do+ath+oeddwn dothoeddwn#7
2s d(y)+ath+oeddud 5 do+ath+oeddud dothoeddud#
3s d(y)+ath+oedd 5 do+ath+oedd dothoedd
1p d(y)+ath+oeddem 5 do+ath+oeddem dothoeddem#
2p d(y)+ath+oeddewch 5 do+ath+oeddewch dothoeddewch#
3p d(y)+ath+oeddynt 5 do+ath+oeddynt dothoeddynt
impersonal d(y)+ath+oeddit 5 do+ath+oeddit dothoeddit#

7 - These forms are also found with "dath-" instead of "doth-"

Present Sbj. Present Sbj.
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s d(y)+el+h+wyf del(h)wyf do+el+h+wyf 5
2s d(y)+el+h+ych del(h)ych do+el+h+ych 5
3s d(y)+el+h+o del(h)o# do+el+h+o 5
or d(y)+el+h+0 del do+el+h+0 5
1p d(y)+el+h+om del(h)om# do+el+h+om 5
2p d(y)+el+h+och del(h)och# do+el+h+och 5
3p d(y)+el+h+ont del(h)ont do+el+h+ont 5
impersonal d(y)+el+h+er del(h)er do+el+h+er 5


Imperfect Sbj. Imperfect Sbj.
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s d(y)+el+h+wn del(h)wn do+el+h+wn 5
2s d(y)+el+h+ud del(h)ud do+el+h+ud 5
3s d(y)+el+h+ei del(h)ei do+el+h+ei 5
1p d(y)+el+h+em del(h)em# do+el+h+em 5
2p d(y)+el+h+ewch del(h)ewch do+el+h+ewch 5
3p d(y)+el+h+ynt del(h)ynt do+el+h+ynt 5
impersonal d(y)+el+h+id del(h)id# do+el+h+id 5


Imperative Imperative
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s - -
2s dabre, degle, dyret, dos 8
3s d(y)+a+et deuet do+a+et doet
1p d(y)+a+wn deuwn# do+a+wn down
2p d(y)+a+wch deuwch# do+a+wch dowch
3p d(y)+a+ent deuent do+a+ent doent
impersonal ? (unattested) ? (unattested)

8 - These are all simply irregular. Note that dos can mean either "go!" or "come!".

Dyvod also has a consuetudinal present and past, as well as alternate forms of the preterite and subjunctives which are derived from the paradigm for bod. These will be discussed in the next lesson.

Exercise 2 - GWNEUTHUR

Present Imperfect
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s gwn+a+af gwnaf gwn+a+wn gwnawn
2s gwn+a+ei gwney gwn+a+ud gwnaut
3s gwn+a+0 gwna9 gwn+a+ei gwnaei
1p gwn+a+wn gwnawn gwn+a+em gwnaem
2p gwn+a+wch gwnewch* gwn+a+ewch gwnaewch
3p gwn+a+ant gwnant gwn+a+ynt gwneynt*
impersonal gwn+a+ir gwneir* gwn+a+it gwneit*#

* Remember that these endings "raise" an "a" in the stem to an "e".

9 - Medieval literature provides a number of alternate forms for the 3rd singular, including: gwnelit, gwnahawd, gwneyd.

Stem+ending Result
1s gwn+aeth+um gwneuthum*
2s gwn+aeth+ost gwnaethost
3s gwn+aeth+0 gwnaeth
1p gwn+aeth+am gwnaetham
2p gwn+aeth+awch gwnaethawch
3p gwn+aeth+ant gwnaethant
impersonal gwn+aeth+pwyd gwnaethpwyd

Perfect Pluperfect
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s gwn+ath+wyf gwneddwyf10 gwn+ath+oeddwn gwnathoeddwn
2s gwn+ath+wyt gwneddwyt gwn+ath+oeddud gwnathoeddud
3s gwn+ath+yw gwneddyw gwn+ath+oedd gwnathoedd
1p gwn+ath+ym gwneddym# gwn+ath+oeddem gwnathoeddem#
2p gwn+ath+ywch gwneddywch# gwn+ath+oeddewch gwnathoeddewch#
3p gwn+ath+ynt gwneddynt# gwn+ath+oeddynt gwnathoeddynt
impersonal ? (unattested) gwn+ath+oeddit gwnathoeddit

10 - These are only found in a single, relatively late manuscript, so the difference between the expected gwnath- and what actually appears may be one of a particular dialect.

Present Sbj. Imperfect Sbj.
Stem+ending Result Stem+ending Result
1s gwn+el+h+wyf gwnel(h)wyf gwn+el+h+wn gwnel(h)wn
2s gwn+el+h+ych gwnel(h)ych gwn+el+h+ud gwnel(h)ud
3s gwn+el+h+o gwnel(h)o# gwn+el+h+ei gwnel(h)ei
or gwn+el+h+0 gwnel
1p gwn+el+h+om gwnel(h)om# gwn+el+h+em gwnel(h)em#
2p gwn+el+h+och gwnel(h)och gwn+el+h+ewch gwnel(h)ewch#
3p gwn+el+h+ont gwnel(h)ont gwn+el+h+ynt gwnel(h)ynt
impersonal gwn+el+h+er gwnel(h)er gwn+el+h+id gwnel(h)id

Stem+ending Result
1s -
2s gwna 11
3s gwn+a+et gwnaet
1p gwn+a+wn gwnawn
2p gwn+a+wch gwnewch
3p gwn+a+ent gwnaent
impersonal gwnel(h)er 12

11 - This is what would be predicted -- if, myned used the "regular" 2sg imperative a.

12 - This is the impersonal present subjunctive, borrowed for use as an imperative.

Gwneuthur also has an alternate set of preterite forms with a completely different stem. This will be discussed in lesson E.


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