Key to the Exercise of Unit 4e
- *They had neared the land of the Scots.
We are nearing the king's bridge.
- Y nessayassynt wynt dir yr Ysgotyeid.
- preverbal particle
- verb (nessa"u): third person plural pluperfect
- pronoun: third person plural, subject
- direct object (tir yr Ysgotyeid): lenited as direct object of verb
- yr Ysgotyeid: genitive modifier of "tir"
- singular: Ysgot
The women neared the mound.
- Yd ym ni'n nessa"u pont y brenhin.
- Y nessa"wn ni bont y brenhin.
I wore a red cloak.
The servants wear new clothes (pl.).
- Y nessaws y gwragedd yr orsedd.
Will you (sg.) wear black?
- Y gwisg y gweisson wisgoedd newyddyon.
We were sitting here.
- A wisgy ti ddu?
- interrogative preverbal particle verb is lenited following the interrogative
- verb (gwisgaw): second person singular, present tense
- pronoun: second person singular, subject
- adjectival object (du): lenited as "object" of verb
Will you (pl.) sit?
He had seen a stag.
She saw horses.
The girl is not able to see the ship.
- Yd eisteddem ni yma.
- Yd oeddem ni yn eistedd yma.
They could sing.
- Ni eill y vorwyn weled y llong.
- negative preverbal particle
- verb either aspirates or lenites after negative particle, "g" can't aspirate
so it lenites
- verb (gallu): third person singular, present tense
- noun phrase (y vorwyn): subject
- the noun (morwyn) lenites because it is feminine and follows the definite
- verbal object (gweled): lenites as object of main verb
- noun phrase (y llong): object of "gweled"
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