Key to the Exercise of Unit 4d

Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Present Imperfect Preterite Pluperfect Present Imperfect  
edrychaf edrychwn edrycheis edrychasswn edrychwyf edrychwn -
edrychy edrychud edrycheist edrychassud edrychych edrychud edrych
edrych edrychei edrychawdd edrychassei edrycho edrychei edryched
edrychwn edrychem edrychassom edrychassem edrychom edrychem edrychwn
edrychwch edrychewch edrychassawch edrychassewch edrychoch edrychewch edrychwch
edrychant edrychynt edrychassant edrychassynt edrychont edrychynt edrychent
edrychir edrychid edrychwyd edrychassid edrycher edrychid edrycher
archaf archwn ercheis archasswn archwyf archwn -
erchy archud ercheist archassud erchych archud arch
eirch [1] archei erchis [2] archassei archo archei arched
archwn archem archassom archassem archom archem archwn
erchwch archewch archassawch archassewch archoch archewch erchwch
archant erchynt archassant archassynt archont erchynt archent
erchir erchid archwyd archassid archer erchid archer
gallaf gallwn gelleis gallasswn gallwyf gallwn -
gelly gallud gelleist gallassud gallych gallud gall
geill [1] gallei gallwys [2] gallassei gallo gallei galled
gallwn galem gallassom gallassem gallom gallem gallwn
gellwch gallewch gallassawch gallassewch galloch gallewch gellewch
gallant gellynt gallassant gallassynt gallont gellynt gallent
gellir gellid gallwyd gallassid galler gellid galler
gwelaf gwelwn gweleis gwelswn gwelhwyf gwelhwn -
gwely gwelud gweleist gwelsud gwelhych gwelhud gwel
gwyl [1] gwelei gwelas [2] gwelsei gwelho gwelhei gweled
gwelwn gwelem gwelsom gwelsem gwelhom gwelhem gwelwn
gwelwch gwelewch gwelsawch gwelsewch gwelhoch gwelhewch gwelwch
gwelant gwelynt gwelsant gwelsynt gwelhont gwelhynt gwelent
gwelir gwelid gwelwyd gwelsid gwelher gwelhid gweler
nessäu - this one's tricky
nessäaf nessäwn nessëeis nessäysswn nessäwyf nessäwn -
nessëy nessäud nessëeist nessäyssud nessëych nessäud nessa
nessa nessäei nessäws, nessäawdd [2] nessäyssei nessäo nessäei nessäed
nessäwn nessäem nessäyssom nessäyssem nessäom nessäem nessäwn
nessëwch nessäewch nessäyssawch nessäyssewch nessäoch nessäewch nessëwch
nessäant nessëynt nessäyssant nessäyssynt nessäont nessëynt nessäent
nessëir nessëid nessawyd nessäyssid nessäer nessëid nessäer

The diaresis (") will not appear except in heavily edited texts. There is a whole class of verbs like "nessäu" that have a root ending in "-a" to which the personal endings are added and you need to keep in mind that this "a" does not form diphthongs with following vowels. "Nessawn" has three syllables: ness-a-wn. I have shown the perfect forms using "y" as the composition vowel to make things clearer, but these verbs can also be found with the more common "a", producing forms like: nessaassant = ness-a-as-sant.


[1] In this case, the 3s present has a vowel change. Note that this isn't the same as the a>e root vowel change in other forms.

[2] One of the alternate forms for the 3s preterite is one of the following vowels followed by "s": - a/e/i/wy + s. Nessäawdd and nessawys are also found.

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